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weekly 2024-05-20

· 3 min read

MoonBit is a Rust-like programming language (with GC support) and toolchain optimized for WebAssembly.

Language Update

  • Breaking Change: Rename Array to FixedArray, @vec.Vec to Array
// Before
fn init {
let array : @vec.Vec[Int] = [1, 2, 3]
// After
fn main {
let array : Array[Int] = [1, 2, 3]
  • Add pattern matching support for Map, HashMap.
    • The type must implement the op_get method, where the key is a native type (Int, Char, String, Bool, etc.), and the value is an Option[T].
    • When matching, the key must be a literal.
    • In { "key": pat }, the pattern pat type is Option[T]. None means "key" does not exist, Some(p) means "key" exists, and p will be used to match the value of this key.
    • The pattern for matching key-value pairs is open: unmatched keys will be ignored even if they exist.
    • Key-value pair patterns will generate optimized code, with each key being queried at most once.
fn main {
let map = @map.Map::[ ("a", 1) ]
match map {
// Match when `map` contains "b",
// and bind the value of "b" in `map` to `y`.
{ "b": Some(y) } => println(y)
// Match when `map` does not contain "b" but contains "a",
// and bind the value of "a" to `k`.
{ "b": None, "a": Some(k) } => println(k)
// The compiler warns that the case { "b": None, "a": None } is not matched.
// Output: 1
  • Allow omitting the newtype constructor when type information is known.
type A Int

pub fn op_add(self : A, other : A) -> A {
self.0 + other.0 // omit the constructor

fn main {
A::A(0) + 1 |> ignore // omit the constructor of 1
let _c : A = 0 + 1 + 2

Build System Update

  • Configuration file options are converted to kebab-case (we'll still support snake_case for a while).
"is-main": true,
"test-import": []
  • Wasm, Wasm-GC: The backend supports specifying the exported memory name (default is moonbit.memory) and compile options (e.g., -no-block-params for compatibility with the Binaryen toolchain) in moon.pkg.json.
"link": {
"wasm": {
"export-memory-name": "custom_memory_name",
"flags": ["-no-block-params"]
  • moon check adds a --deny-warn option, treating warnings as failures and returning a non-zero exit code.
  • Optimized the execution speed of moon fmt and moon info.
  • moon fmt adds a --check option to check if the current code is formatted.

Core Update

  • Added an experimental library moonbitlang/x for developing and testing packages with unstable APIs. Once packages in moonbitlang/x are stable, we will select important packages to merge into moonbitlang/core based on community feedback.
    • num, time, uuid, and json5 have all been moved to moonbitlang/x.
  • The Bytes API moved from the Int type to the Byte type.
fn Bytes::op_get(self : Bytes, index : Int) -> Byte
fn Bytes::op_set(self : Bytes, index : Int, value : Byte) -> Unit
fn Bytes::length(self : Bytes) -> Int
fn Bytes::make(len : Int, ~init : Byte = b'\x00') -> Bytes